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Review: Chitosan Nanoparticles for Effective and Safe Drug Delivery: Potential Big Deal in Intellectual Property Business

Journal of Scientific and Technical Research

Volume 7 Issue 1

Published: 2017
Author(s) Name: J. G. Shantha Siri, C. A. N. Fernando, N. De Silva | Author(s) Affiliation: Dept of Electronics, Faculty of Applied Sc, Wayamba Univ of Sri Lanka, Kuliyapitiya, Sri Lanka
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Abstract

According to the world drug report 2016 of United Nations Office on Drug and Crime, over 29 million people who use drugs are estimated to suffer from drug use disorders. It is estimated that 1 in 20 adults, or a quarter of a billion people between the ages of 15 and 64 years, used at least one drug in 2014. The estimated 207, 400 drug-related deaths in 2014 is corresponding to 43.5 deaths per million people aged 15-64. The number of drug-related deaths worldwide has also remained stable, although unacceptable and preventable. The use of conventional antimicrobial agents against infections is always associated with problems such as the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. In addition, the inefficient traditional drug delivery system results in inadequate therapeutic index, low bio-availability of drugs, inefficient delivery of the drugs, causing systemic side effects, problems of poor uptake and destruction of drugs (when orally administered). One of the most dynamic research areas in the field of nanotechnology is nano-medicine and target drug delivery is one of the highly specific medical interventions for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Problems associated with conventional drug administration methods may potentially be overcome by these novel drug delivery methods. Researchers have been able to develop targeted and sustained drug delivery platforms harnessing unique physico-chemical properties of nano-particles. Advances in research on bio-compatible polymeric nano-particles have enabled more efficient and safer delivery of drugs with improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics with reduced side effects. Total market size of nanotechnology in drug delivery in 2021 is forecasted to be US$136 billion. Trends also suggest that the number of nanotechnology products and workers worldwide will double every 3 years, achieving a US$3 trillion market with six million workers by 2020. Chitosan nanoparticles seem to be the most promising comnanoparticle that can be used for developing multipurpose drug carrier platforms due to its biocompatibility, mucoadhesivity, non-toxicity and biodegradability. Despite of potential benefits of nanoparticles in target drug delivery, there are certain engineered nanomaterials which can lead to unforeseen environmental, health and safety risks. Therefore, adequate attention is needed from the beginning in order to ensure sustainable nanotechnology. This review article is focused on frontier research, toxicity evidence and patent filing trends in applications of chitosan nanoparticles with an emphasis on target drug delivery.

Keywords: Biocompatible, Chitosan nanoparticles, Hazards and risks, Nanomedicine, Nanotechnology, Patents, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, Targeted drug delivery.

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